Functions And Operations Of Various Components Of Electric Bikes


Time to read 5 min

What Is An Electric Bike?

An e-bike is a bicycle equipped with an electric motor and battery to assist the rider in pedaling. As our daily means of transportation, electric vehicles are becoming more and more popular among people. In addition to knowing the big parts such as motors, chargers, and batteries, how much do we know about the other components of electric vehicles?

In this guide, we’ll explore the main components of an e-bike and how they work together to provide an enjoyable and efficient riding experience.

What Are The Main Components Of An Electric Bike?

E-Bikes provide additional power through the motor, allowing riders to effortlessly commute and conquer hills and cover greater distances.

An electric vehicle is composed of a body, a motor, a controller, a battery, a charger, an instrument system, and sensors. The motor, controller, battery, and charger are also relatively important and have become the four major parts of an electric vehicle.

1. Car Body

Vehicle body parts include frame, front fork, handlebar and other parts. The upper end of the front fork component cooperates with the handlebar and the frame, and the lower end cooperates with the front axle and the front wheel component to form the guide part of the electric vehicle. By turning the handlebar, the front fork is driven to change the direction of the front wheel, which also plays an important role in maintaining balance.

Accessory parts include saddle parts, reflectors and whistle parts, front and rear fender parts, bracket parts, lock parts, front basket parts, etc.

2. Motor

There are four common ones, namely: brushed geared hub motor, brushed gearless hub motor, brushless geared hub motor, brushless geared hub motor, etc. The best among them is the brushless geared motor.

According to the speed, there are generally two types of motors: high-speed motors, with a speed of more than 3,000 rpm; low-speed motors, with a speed of less than 300 rpm. High-speed motors are powerful and have large torque. When used for power driving, they have high efficiency and low energy consumption, while the opposite is true for low-speed motors.

According to the presence or absence of brushes, they are divided into brushed motors and brushless motors. The current mainstream in the market is brushless motor electric bicycles.

3. Controller

The controller mainly controls the start, operation, advance and retreat, speed, stop and other core control components of the electric vehicle motor; and the performance and characteristics displayed by different models are also different.

4. Battery

Batteries are the core components that provide energy for electric vehicles. Currently, electric vehicles mainly use lithium batteries and lead-acid batteries. The battery is the power source for the motor. It is usually located on the bicycle frame and can be removable or built-in.

5. Instrument System

The instrument system displays important information such as speed, distance, battery life, and more. It is a component that displays the status of an electric vehicle, usually located on the handlebars.

6. Charger

The charger is mainly a component that replenishes electric energy to the battery. Generally, the charger needs to be prevented from shaking violently when charging, and the charging time should not be too long, which is the basis for battery maintenance.

7. Sensor

Sensors provide information to the controller indicating how much power to provide based on the rider's speed and pedaling cadence.

8. Turn handle, Brake handle, Lamp

Turn handles, brake handles, etc. are the signal input components of the controller. The turn handle signal is the speed control signal of the electric vehicle; the brake handle signal is the power-off braking control signal of the electric vehicle, and the lamp provides lighting for the electric vehicle.

Electric bicycle component diagram

How Does An E-bike Controller Work?

The controller is an important part of an e-bike, regulating the power and speed of the motor based on sensor input. The electric bicycle controller uses a PWM circuit to control the motor output power. The switch modulation function is a high-frequency switching power device MOS tube. It is used as a switch to perform high-frequency chopper intermittent power supply, thus effectively solving the problem of the motor. speed and current controllability.

The performance of the controller has a great influence on the control performance of an electric bicycle. For a high-performance electric bicycle, a controller with reliable quality is an essential component.

How Do E-Bikes Work Differently Than Bikes?

An electric bicycle is a means of transportation that can rely on pure human power riding, pure motor riding, or human power and motor riding together. In addition to the frame and tires of an electric bicycle, the motor and battery are important components. Bicycles are ridden purely by human power, without the help of motors. The parts of a bicycle include the frame, tires, pedals, brakes, chains, etc.

The frame of an electric bicycle is stronger than that of an ordinary bicycle. It uses thicker steel pipes or aluminum pipes as structural parts, and the braking force of the brakes is also greater than that of ordinary bicycles.

How To Optimize and Increase The Cruising Range of E-Bikes?

1. Maintain good riding habits, avoid sudden acceleration and braking, and keep driving at a constant speed.

2. Choose roads with good road conditions for riding, and give priority to riding on smooth, barrier-free roads.

3. Place the electric bicycle and battery in a dry environment and avoid being placed in humid air for a long time.

4. Perform daily maintenance on electric bicycles, regularly check the health of the battery, and replace aging batteries in a timely manner.

Installing an e-bike battery

How To Charge An Electric Bicycle Scientifically?

1. When charging, do not lengthen the power cord at will. Frequently pulling the power cord around will cause loose joints, aging circuits, damaged wire rubber and short circuits, which may lead to fires.

2. Control reasonable charging time and extend battery life. Whether it is an electric car or an electric bicycle, charging for too long can easily lead to accelerated aging of the battery. For the convenience of charging, some electric bicycle owners usually charge their electric vehicles overnight. , even charging all day long is particularly unsafe, and secondly, the activity of the battery is easily reduced and the battery ages faster.

3. It is recommended to charge when there is about 30% remaining power. If it is completely used up and then recharged, the chemical activity of the battery will decrease and the battery life will be shortened. In addition, be sure to use the original charger and do not replace the charger at will. The charger parameters for different models are basically different, because even if some parameters are the same, their adapted performance may not reach the original factory effect.

What Is The Service Life of An Electric Bicycle?

How often the electric vehicle battery needs to be replaced needs to be calculated based on the user's frequency of use. If the frequency is higher, the replacement cycle will be shorter. But if we develop good maintenance habits in our daily lives, we can extend the replacement cycle of electric vehicle batteries to a certain extent. Whether it is a lithium battery or a lead-acid battery, under light use, it only needs to be replaced with a new battery every 5 to 7 years. So the average service life of an electric bicycle is about 5 years. According to your own needs, correctly choosing an electric bicycle that suits you can also extend its service life.

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